E. Coli

Escherichia Coli DNA

Key Concepts:

  • E. coli is a most popular host for gene cloning due to the extreme effectivity of introduction of DNA molecules into cells.
  • E. coli is a most popular host for protein manufacturing as a consequence of its quick progress and the facility to particular proteins at very extreme ranges.
  • Bacterial conjugation will be utilized to change large DNA fragments from one bacterium to a distinct.
  • E. coli is a most popular host for the look at of phage biology due to the detailed knowledge of its nucleic acid and protein biosynthetic pathways.
  • The flexibleness of E. coli to develop on chemically outlined media coupled with its intensive genetic toolbox make it a key system in look at of bacterial metabolic pathways.

Abstract

How genomes are organized inside cells and the best way the 3D construction of a genome influences cell capabilities are necessary questions in biology. A bacterial genomic DNA resides inside cells in a extraordinarily condensed and functionally organized sort known as nucleoid (nucleus-like development with out a nuclear membrane). The Escherichia coli chromosome or nucleoid consists of the genomic DNA, RNA, and protein. The nucleoid varieties by condensation and purposeful affiliation of a single chromosomal DNA with the help of chromosomal architectural proteins and RNA molecules along with DNA supercoiling. Although a high-resolution development of a bacterial nucleoid is however to come back again, 5 a few years of research has established the following salient choices of the E. coli nucleoid elaborated beneath:

1) The chromosomal DNA is on the frequent a negatively supercoiled molecule that is folded as plectonemic loops, which might be confined into many unbiased topological domains as a consequence of supercoiling diffusion limitations;

2) The loops spatially organize into megabase dimension areas known as macrodomains, which might be outlined by further frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA web sites all through the equivalent macrodomain than between completely totally different macrodomains;

3) The condensed and spatially organized DNA takes the kind of a helical ellipsoid radially confined inside the cell; and

4) The DNA inside the chromosome appears to have a condition-dependent 3-D development that is linked to gene expression so that the nucleoid construction and gene transcription are tightly interdependent, influencing each other reciprocally. Current advents of high-resolution microscopy, single-molecule analysis and molecular development willpower of the elements are anticipated to reveal the complete development and efficiency of the bacterial nucleoid.

Escherichia-coli
Escherichia-coli

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Introduction

In numerous micro organism, the chromosome is a single covalently closed (spherical) double-stranded DNA molecule that encodes the genetic data in a haploid sort. The size of the DNA varies from 500,000 to numerous million base-pairs (bp) encoding from 500 to numerous thousand genes counting on the organism. The chromosomal DNA is present in cells in a extraordinarily condensed, organized sort known as nucleoid (nucleus-like), which is not encased by a nuclear membrane as in eukaryotic cells.

The isolated nucleoid contains 80% DNA, 10% protein, and 10% RNA by weight [1, 2]. On this exposition, we overview our current knowledge about

(i) how chromosomal DNA turns into the nucleoid,

(ii) the weather involved therein,

(iii) what’s thought of its development, and

(iv) how among the many DNA structural options have an effect on gene expression, using the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a model system. We moreover highlight some related factors that have to be resolved. This exposition is an extension of earlier critiques on the subject [3, 4].

There are two necessary options of nucleoid formation; condensation of a giant DNA proper right into a small cell space and purposeful group of DNA in a three-dimensional sort. The haploid spherical chromosome in E. coli consists of ~ 4.6 x 106 bp. If DNA is relaxed inside the B sort, it might have a circumference of ~1.5 millimeters (0.332 nm x 4.6 x 106) (Fig 1A). Nonetheless, a giant DNA molecule such as a result of the E. coli chromosomal DNA would not keep a straight rigid molecule in a suspension. Brownian motion will generate curvature and bends in DNA.

The utmost dimension as a lot as which a double-helical DNA stays straight by resisting the bending enforced by Brownian motion is ~50 nm or 150 bp, which is called the persistence dimension. Thus, pure DNA turns into significantly condensed with none further components; at thermal equilibrium, it assumes a random coil sort. The random coil of E. coli chromosomal DNA (Fig 1B) would occupy a amount (4/Three π r3) of ~ 523 μm3, calculated from the radius of gyration (Rg = (√N a)/√6) the place a is the Kuhn dimension (2 x persistence dimension), and N is the number of Kuhn dimension segments inside the DNA (entire dimension of the DNA divided by a). Although DNA is already condensed inside the random coil sort, it nonetheless can’t assume the amount of the nucleoid which is decrease than a micron (Fig 1C). Thus, the inherent property of DNA won’t be ample: further components ought to help condense DNA extra on the order of ~103 (amount of the random coil divided by the nucleoid amount).

The second necessary aspect of nucleoid formation is the purposeful affiliation of DNA. Chromosomal DNA won’t be solely condensed however moreover functionally organized in a strategy that is acceptable with DNA transaction processes akin to replication, recombination, segregation, and transcription (Fig 1C). Just about 5 a few years of research beginning in 1971 [1], has confirmed that the final word sort of the nucleoid arises from a hierarchical group of DNA. On the smallest scale (1 -kb or a lot much less), nucleoid-associated DNA architectural proteins condense and organize DNA by bending, looping, bridging or wrapping DNA.

At an even bigger scale (10 -kb or greater), DNA varieties plectonemic loops, a braided sort of DNA induced by supercoiling. On the megabase scale, the plectonemic loops coalesce into six spatially organized domains (macrodomains), which might be outlined by further frequent bodily interactions amongst DNA web sites all through the equivalent macrodomain than between completely totally different macrodomains [7]. Prolonged- and short-range DNA-DNA connections formed inside and between the macrodomains contribute to condensation and purposeful group. Lastly, the nucleoid is a helical ellipsoid with areas of extraordinarily condensed DNA on the longitudinal axis [8–10]. We discuss these organizational choices of the nucleoid and their molecular basis beneath.

E. coli Strains
E. coli Strains

DNA cloning by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli

Abstract

The cloning of abroad DNA in Escherichia coli episomes is a cornerstone of molecular biology. The pioneering work inside the early 1970s, using DNA ligases to stay DNA into episomal vectors, continues to be primarily probably the most extensively used technique. Proper right here we describe a singular principle, using ET recombination for directed cloning and subcloning, which supplies numerous advantages. Most prominently, a particular DNA space can be cloned from a complicated mixture with out prior isolation. Due to this fact cloning by ET recombination resembles PCR in that every include the amplification of a DNA space between two chosen elements. We apply the method to subclone chosen DNA areas from numerous objective molecules resident in E. coli hosts, and to clone chosen DNA areas from genomic DNA preparations. Proper right here we analyze major options of the technique and present numerous examples that illustrate its simplicity, flexibility, and memorable effectivity.

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (uvrD)

RPC22753-100ug 100ug
EUR 907.5

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (uvrD)

RPC22753-1mg 1mg
EUR 3455.4

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (uvrD)

RPC22753-20ug 20ug
EUR 519.2

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (uvrD)

CSB-EP360936ENV 3351 mg Ask for price

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA helicase II(uvrD)

AP77812 1mg
EUR 3015

Escherichia coli

Oneq-VHA207-OneqVHA207100D Oneq-VHA207-100D
EUR 515

Escherichia coli

Oneq-VHA207-OneqVHA207150D Oneq-VHA207-150D
EUR 594

Escherichia coli

Oneq-VHA207-OneqVHA20750D Oneq-VHA207-50D
EUR 413

Escherichia coli

PCR-VHA207-PCRVHA20748D PCR-VHA207-48D
EUR 184

Escherichia coli

PCR-VHA207-PCRVHA20796D PCR-VHA207-96D
EUR 312

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II (polB)

CSB-EP321908ENV 10405 mg Ask for price

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA adenine methylase (dam)

CSB-EP360101ENVh2 11717 mg Ask for price

Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase (dnaB)

1-CSB-EP811243EGXa0
  • EUR 733.20
  • EUR 370.80
  • EUR 2192.40
  • EUR 1126.80
  • EUR 1461.60
  • EUR 476.40
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli O6:H1 Replicative DNA helicase(dnaB) expressed in E.coli

Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL (mutL)

1-CSB-EP543397ENV
  • EUR 733.20
  • EUR 370.80
  • EUR 2192.40
  • EUR 1126.80
  • EUR 1461.60
  • EUR 476.40
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA mismatch repair protein MutL(mutL) expressed in E.coli

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27318-100ug 100ug
EUR 801.9

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27318-1mg 1mg
EUR 2885.2

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27318-20ug 20ug
EUR 448.1

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27685-100ug 100ug
EUR 801.9

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27685-1mg 1mg
EUR 2885.2

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

RPC27685-20ug 20ug
EUR 448.1

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

CSB-EP365190ENV(A4M1) 3448 mg Ask for price

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA)

CSB-EP365190ENV(A4M2) 3449 mg Ask for price

Recombinant Escherichia coli DNA repair protein recO (recO)

RPC22798-100ug 100ug
EUR 721.6

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